Ideas to postpone the end of the world

Ailton Krenak is an indigenous socioenvironmental activist. The tribe Krenak, that baptizes his name, is located in the Rio Doce valley, area affected by the ore extraction. Born in 1953, Ailton found several NGO, on behalf of the indigenous people. An historic fact: the activist claimed and protest the indigenous rights in the Constituent assembly, and his fight was decisive for the creation of the indigenous chapter in the brazilian Constituent of 1988.

Ideas to postpone the end of the world is a book composed by two lectures and an interview that question the reality of our existence as human beings in the actual society. Nowadays, brazilian indigenous use even the cinema to disseminate their ideas and ideals.

               To begin with, in the book Krenak exposes that the european colonization happened in Brazil with the premise that there is an enlightened humanity, that finds an obscured humanity. Following the historical tradition of the colonization of the country, the current patterns of the exploration of the land are used as a way to make profit. In this scenario, following the author, the earth will be exhausted by the exploration of the land. Arguments that oppose to this reality are developed in the book and justify the title ‘Ideas to postpone the end of the world’.

The concept of Humanity is questioned, once that Krenak claims that we all are different individuals with subjectivities. This is an anthropocentric concept imposed by the State, that transform the citizen in a consumer, and following the tought of the activist, it is what the capitalist corporations wants. Krenak also places each being as an individuality, a constelation. At the moment that the human being is taken out of the center and changes the relation with nature, it is possible to obtain a view of preservation of nature.

According to Ailton, in the indigenous cosmovision, environment and human beings are inseparables. Therefore, the indigenous see nature as part of a whole, of the humanity. The river is not seen by the tribes as a resource, but as an ancestral. With this perspective, Krenak criticises the disrespect that the brazilian State has for the indigenous. Therefore, the activist places the demarcation of the indigenous lands not only as necessary, but fundamental to avoid disasters as the breakage of the hydroeletric dam of Samarco, for example. Ailton says also that the river Doce is not dirty, but in coma.

Poetic, the activist punctuates that the call to the civilization is justified by the concept that should be a right way to exist in the world. What Krenak calls the ‘sustainability myth’ is something that was invented by corporations to justify the notion of truth that guided the choices made in different history periods. These choices were capitalists and exploratory, and limited our capacity of invention, creation, existence and liberty, and consequently are a voluntary bondage, by Krenak vision,.

Ideas to postpone the end of the world is not only a necessary book, but essential to know and acknowledge the reality of the brazilian indigenous tribes in the actual society. Nothing is like it seems, yet there are still a lot to discover – and respect – about this tribe that is so excluded by the brazilian State.

               

About Lolita

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Written by Vladimir Nabokov (1899-1977), Lolita is one of the most famous – and polemic romances of the contemporary universal literature. It is considered a master piece of the 20’s. Yet, it was rejected by four different publishers after its first publication in Paris, 1955. The reason was the story theme: the Paedophilia.

It´s a fact: every person will understand Paedophilia as a subject not only uncomfortable but also repugnant. So, why was this book in the top of the bestsellers list, when launched in EUA, 1958? And why is, until nowadays, this book considered a masterpiece?

Written with class, Nabokov’s words transformed the bizarre pedophile theme into an engaging narrative. In the text, a rich and creative vocabulary enable the creation of two buzzwords, which are now known worldwide: Lolita and Nymphet. Both are used to describe young girls that are attractive.

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Two versions of the story were produced in the cinema: the first was made by the director Stanley Kubrick, in 1971. The other, in 1997 by the director Adrian Lyne. As in the book, the film is narrated by its protagonist. The lonely french literature professor Humbert Humbert tells us his story, according to his distorted perspective, which makes it even more intriguing.

It is true that the cinematographic adaptations from books do not include all every detail. Even in 2h40, Kubrick’s film omits all the romance’s first part. It is in the beginning that the protagonist justifies his acts with an unresolved childhood romance, but this part is not present in the movie.

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In the book, Humbert Humbert tells us his story from jail: he was condemned for homicide. The order of the facts changes in the movie, but it does not change the story`s essence. The main caracthers do not lose the main features of them personalities. As an example, Lolita’s mother is the landlord of the house that Humbert Humbert lives. In both versions, Charlotte has uncontrolled emotions and insinuates herself all the time for the pedophile.

It is not important, but also a necessity to talk about such a disconformable theme. With all its disguised prejudice, society moral incite us to let some themes out of the discussion, whether because it is uncomfortable to talk about, or perhaps it is seen as anyone business. Nevertheless, there is always Art itself, that can touch and reveal such an obscure theme and bring it to the social discussion, making people know that it is something that can happen in any family, and it is a problem that has to be dealt with.

With a fancy language, Vladimir Nabokov made a sick man’s past into a romance: Lolita is poetry in form of prose. Portraying on a film, Kubrick expresses the piece with fidelity, adapting the situations described into actions that reveal lively the author idea. Even though, every delicacy is morbid when the matter is about pedophilia…