Adjectives

Adjectives are descriptive words.

They add positive or negative qualities to a noun, or reveal its personalities or states of being.

Normally, they are placed before nouns. Other positions are not only possible, but also enrich the text.

Composed
When an adjective is formed with a proper noun, it uses capital letter.
Ex.: American dream

Turn into a noun
An adjective is changed into a noun using the suffix –ness at the word’s end.
Ex. Happiness

Relations
When talking about a relation or feelings between people or things, usually an adjective needs a complement.
Ex. I am fond of music.

Comparison of adjectives
To compare two persons or things, add an –er at the end.

Alternatively, to avoid error it is possible to use ‘more than’.

When comparing more than two, it is used the –est form.

Predicate adjectives
Class of adjectives that complement linking verbs, or the verb to be.

Normally, it is applied to verbs that describe a state of being or a sensorial experience: to feel, to taste, etc.
Ex.: The girl is happier than before.

Absolute Adjectives
Class of words that gives a quality that cannot be graded. 
Ex. Dead, essential, pregnant.

Sources:

https://www.grammarly.com/blog/adjective/

https://www.englishgrammar.org/absolute-adjectives/

https://www.ecenglish.com/learnenglish/lessons/what-are-absolute-adjectives

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/grammar/word-classes/adjectives

https://dictionary.cambridge.org/pt/dicionario/ingles/adjective

Pronouns

Pronouns stand in place of nouns, or noun phrases.

They refer to someone or something already mentioned in the text, understood by context.

Also, they reveal gender and quantity of things or persons on a sentence.

Mainly, it is used to avoid repetition in a phrase.

Personal pronouns

A class of pronouns that refers to specific people or things, revealing its gender and number (when referring to people).

1th Person: Who is writing or speaking

2th Person: Who is being spoken to

3th Person: Other people or things

It can work, at the same time, as a subject or object of a phrase.

Interrogative Pronouns

A class of pronouns that introduce questions.

What, which, who, whom, whose.

Possessive pronouns

A class of pronouns that refer to things that belong or are owned by someone.

Mine, yours, his, her, its, ours, and theirs.

Demonstrative pronouns

A class of pronouns that indicate the quantity and distance of people and things, distinguishing it from others. The same as the demonstrative adjectives.

This, that, these, those.

Relative pronouns

A class of pronouns that connects phrase to a subordinate clause, that is also a phrase that normally completes the meaning of the first one, as a reason or consequence of the action in the first one.

That, which, who, whom, what, and whose.

Indefinite pronouns

A class of pronouns that refer to people or things that are unidentified.

Everybody, either, none, something.

Sources:

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pronoun


https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/grammar/pronouns


https://www.grammarly.com/blog/pronouns/


https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/grammar/british-grammar/pronouns/pronouns-personal-i-me-you-him-it-they-etc

https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/pronoun



Noun

Nouns make the largest class of words.

It is a naming word, used to identify or refer to something.

It is used to name:

  • Things
  • People
  • Animals
  • Qualities
  • Places
  • Actions
  • Ideas
  • Events
  • Substances
  • Entities
  • Concepts

In a complete sentence, usually, a noun is the subject of a verb.

It can be interpreted as singular or plural.

It can be replaced by a pronoun.


Common Nouns

People, animals, things.


Proper Nouns

Specific names of people, animals, and things, that make them unique.


Concrete Nouns

Name things that you can see or touch, and feel.


Abstract nouns

Ideas, feelings, events, and situations.
Name things that you cannot feel, see or touch.



Sources:

Phythian B.A. (2010). Correct English. London: Hodder Education.

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/noun

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/noun

https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/noun

https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/grammar/british-grammar/about-nouns/nouns